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初中英语知识归纳总结(26-30课时)

丹秋名师堂谢姣 2019年10月14日 初中英语 9385 阅读 0

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第二十六课时    句子的类型(一)

 

教学重点

句子的类型:陈述句

陈述句(包括肯定的或否定的)用来叙述一项事实。陈述句的结构分为肯定结构和否定结构两种。

1、陈述句的肯定结构

1)主语与谓语的一致,句子中的谓语动词和主语在人称和数上必须一致。如:

I was having dinner when he came in.

He is now working at a bank.

①谓语只跟主语的中心词保持一致,修饰词不影响主语的数:

The quality of this kind of bike is poor.

There be结构和其他倒装句中,谓语通常放在主语的前面,这时谓语是单数还是复数,要依后面的主语而定,如:

There is no milk in the bottle.

There are no students iin the classroom.

②“one of ……”结构作主语,谓语应该用单数。如:

One of the students is absent.

Making things is a good activity.

What hurt her most is his words.

③由and连接两个或两个以上的名词,由both…and…”连接的两个成分作主语,其谓语动词通常用复数形式,如:

Susan and Sally like pop music.

The worker and the peasant are going to give us a talk.

④单数名词后面有下面词语修饰时,主语不受这些词或词组的影响

with….  like…  as well as…  together with…  

He, as well as his classmates, likes popular songs.

Mr Li, together with his wife and two songs, is on holiday these days.

⑤由连词“either…or…,neither…nor…,not only…but also…,also, nor, or连接两个名词或代词,谓语动词的形式应与最近的主语保持一致

Neither I nor my brother is good at maths.

Either you or I’m wrong.

注意:表示数量、时间、距离、金钱等的复数名词作主语时,谓语动词一般用单数形式。用于数学运算的数字作主语,谓语通常也用单数形式。如:

Ten pounds is enough.    Two hours is a long time.

2、陈述句的否定形式

1)带有系动词、助动词、情态动词的肯定句,只要把not, never加在这些动词后面,就能把肯定句变为否定,no通常否定名词或动名词

I’m not a doctor.     I haven’t got a camera.

I have never met him before.

2)若谓语是行为动词,前面又没有助动词和情态动词,只要在谓语动词之前加助动词do( does, did ) not就行。

I didn’t go to the concert yesterday.

He doesn’t speak English

3no修饰复数名词作主语,谓语动词要用复数。如果no修饰单数名词作主语,谓语动词要用单数。如:

No men are admitted    No man is admitted.

4)表示部分否定的词有:not all, not everything, not everybody, not everywhere, not both, not always.

Not everybody enjoys fishing.

Not everything goes well.

 

 

 

 

 

第二十七课时    句子的类型(二)

 

教学重点

句子的类型:疑问句

疑问句是用来提出疑问的句子,疑问句末尾用问号“?”。疑问句一般分为:一般疑问句;特殊疑问句;选择疑问句和反意疑问句。

1、一般疑问句

(1) 含有系动词、助动词、情态动词的陈述句改为疑问句:要把这些动词提到主语的前面,句末用问号。

Are you a policeman?   Must I go now?

(2) 如果谓语是行为动词,它前面又没有任何助动词、情态动词,这时就要用助动词do ( does, did )来构成疑问句。

Does he often write to you ?

Did you enjoy yourself last Sunday?

2、特殊疑问句

(1) 特殊疑问句由“疑问词+一般疑问句”构成,其中一般疑问句又采取倒装或部分倒装的形式。

(2) 特殊疑问句的疑问词通常分为疑问代词和疑问副词两种。

3、选择疑问句

它的结构是“一般疑问句 + or + 一般疑问句“,回答这类问题时要选择其中一种具体进行回答。

Is her brother a doctor or a teacher?

Her brother a doctor.

4、反意疑问句

反意疑问句由一个陈述句和一个简略形式的疑问句构成,中间用逗号隔开。通常有两种形式:

① 陈述句谓语用肯定形式 + 疑问句谓语用否定形式;

He is stupid, isn’t he?

② 陈述句谓语用否定形式 + 疑问句谓语用肯定形式;

He doesn’t like sports, does he?

(5) 如果陈述部分是主从复合句,那么疑问部分的谓语应该跟主语的谓语所用形式一样。

You never told us you are the headmaster, did you?

注意:

used to用在句中时,也可用usen’t usedn’t来引起反意疑问句。He used to swim in winter, didn’t he? =

He used to swim in winter, usen’t he?

② 当陈述句中的主语为everybody, everyone, anyone, nobody, none, no one时,疑问部分通常要用they来代替。

    Everybody admires him, don’t they?

③ 如果陈述句部分已经用了表示否定意义的词,如never, nothing, hardly,那么疑问部分应该使用肯定形式。

He never speaks loudly, does he?

④ 当陈述句部分的主语为everything, nothing, anything, something时,疑问部分的主语要用it.

Something is wrong with the machine, isn’t it?

Everything is in good order, isn’t it?

 祈使句的反意疑问句部分要用shall, will

Let’s表示第一人称的祈使句,所以反意疑问句为shall we?”, let me let us表示第二人称的祈使句,反意疑问句为will you?”,其他行为动词引起的祈使句,反意疑问句都为“will you?”。祈使句的反意疑问句通常只有肯定形式。

Let’s go for a walk, shall we?

Let’s stop for a rest, will you?

 感叹句的反意疑问句要用be”的现在时,对人的感叹,用“he”“you”等,对事物的感叹,用“it”,而且疑问部分必须用否定式。

What a clever boy, isn’t he?

What a wonderful lecture, isn’t it?

 

 

 

 

第二十八课时    句子的类型(三)

教学重点

句子的类型:祈使句  感叹句

祈使句表示请求、命令、建议等等,谓语动词一律用原形。句中通常不用主语,句末用惊叹号或者句号。

1、肯定的祈使句

(1) 句型:动词原形……(省略主语)。如:

Look at these holes!   Please keep the classroom quiet.

(2) 有时,为了加强语气,可以在动词之前加do

Do be quiet.     Do study hard.

(3) 祈使句中如果有呼语,一定要用逗号“,”隔开。放在句首或句尾。Come here, Li Ming.

2、否定的祈使句

(1) 句型:Don’g + 动词原形……

Don’t make the same mistake.  

Don’t look out of the windows.

(2) 祈使句与陈述句的改写

祈使句=You must ……

Be quiet. = you must be quiet.

Don’t make any noise = You mustn’t make any noise.

Please + 祈使句 = Will you please ……?

Please read after me = Will you please read after me?

3、祈使句Let…句型

Let作为动词常常用于祈使句,但表达意义不相同

Let表示“建议”后面跟第一人称代词作宾语。

Let’s go to school together!   Let me try again.

Let表示“间接命令或愿望”,后面接第三人称代词作宾语。

Let him work out the problem by himself.

Let Li Ping be monitor.

 

感叹句表示说话时的惊讶、喜悦、气愤等情绪,带有强烈的感情色彩。感叹句主要有两种:

What + 名词词组;

What a beautiful day it is!

How + 形容词或副词

How well they have learned English!

How well he swims!

注意:

What 修饰单数可数名词时,如果这一名词有形容词修饰,也可以用how来引导感叹句,但是不定冠词a, an要放在形容词的后面。

What a beautiful park!

How beautiful a park it is!

 

补充练习

按要求进行句型转换

1. We have many cakes for supper (变为否定疑问句)

2. I would like a cup of tea, please. (变为一般疑问句)

3. He is a teacher, (a student) (改为选择疑问句)

4. It is a nice box. (改为感叹句)

5. The workers are working hard. (改为感叹句)

6. Tom is sitting on the desk. (改为否定的祈使句)

7. Everything is ready, ___________ ?  (以下改为反意疑问句)

8. This isn’t your book, _____________ ?

9. Don’t look out of the window, _____________ ?

 

 

 

 

 

 

第二十九课时    句子的分类(一)

 

教学重点

简单句及简单句的五种基本句型

1SVC结构(主语+系动词+表语)

在这种句型中,动词必须是系动词,在动词之后跟有表语。表语可以是名词(词组),形容词(词组),副词(词组)等。如:

The teacher is kind.     She looks fine.

My son became a doctor at last.

系动词除be外,常见的还有keep, look, feel, smell, sound, taste, grow, get, go, turn

2SV结构(主语+不及物动词)

(1) 在这个结构中,动词是不及物动词,动词后边没有宾语,如:

My head aches.    He is singing.

(2) 有些动词后边必须带有状语,否则意思就不明确。如:

The professor lives in Beijing.

We stayed in China for a few days.

常见的不及物动词有:sleep, walk, swim, happen, take place, go, come, work, laugh, stay.

3SVO结构(主语+及物动词+宾语)

在这个结构中,谓语动词必须是及物动词,在动词后边跟有宾语。

He can drive a car.    They speak English.

有些不及物动词后面加上介词或副词可以把它看成一个及物动词,这时后边可接宾语。

Please listen to me carefully.

4SVOO结构(主语+动词+间接宾语+直接宾语)

(1) 双宾语结构   在这个结构中,动词是带有双宾语(直接宾语和间接宾语)的及物动词。直接宾语多指物,间接宾语多指人。常用的带有双宾语的动词有:give, send, tell, bring, lend, buy, teach, get, call, do, ask, wish, offer等。

He gave the inspector his passport.

My father taught us English.

(2) 宾语的位置

间接宾语一般放在直接宾语之前,但是,如果为了强调间接宾语或者由于间接宾语较长,常把间接宾语放在直接宾语之后,这时要在间接宾语的前面加上适当的介词。如:

The old man bought his daughter a nice scarf.

The old man bought a nice scarf for his daughter.

Give the teacher this book.=Give this book to the teacher.

5SVOC结构(主语+动词+宾语+宾语补足语)

在这种结构中,宾语补足语是用来补充说明宾语的。

(1) 在某些及物动词后,需要一个宾语再加上一个宾语补足语才能表达完整的意思,这样的宾语和宾补称为复合宾语。名词、形容词、不定式、分词、副词都可以作宾补。

(2) 常跟复合宾语的动词有:call, name, make, think, find, leave, keep等。如:

His mother finds him a clever boy.

Please keep the room clean.

(3) see, watch, look at, listen to, hear, feel, let, make(使), have(使)等这些词后的宾补,如果是不定式担当的,则省去to”,但变为被动语态时“to”要还原。如:

I heard a man knock at the door three times.

A man was heard to knock at the door three times.

第三十课时    句子的分类(二)

 

教学重点

并列句  there be结构  复合句

1、并列句:由连词连接两个分句组成的句子叫并列句。这些分句平等并列,而且同等重要,能够独立成句。连接分句的有并列连词和主丛连词。

并列连词有:and, but, or, nor, for, while, either…or…, neither…now, not only… but also…

主从连词有:so, however, still, yet, then

并列句中的前后两句可以根据意思划分为四种关系。

(1) 同等关系:and / not only…but also / neither…nor…

He could neither read nor write.  

He not only studies hard, but also likes sports.

(2) 转折关系:but / yet / still / while / when

Tom was not there but his brother was ( there )

(3) 选择关系:or / either… or…

Either you didn’t understand this, or you were not careful enough.

(4) 因果关系:for / so

He hurried, for it was getting dark.

He liked the book very much, so I gave it to him.

2there be结构

英语中there + be + sb. /sth.+ 地点”结构表示“某处有某人或某物”。There是引导词,本身没有意思,be是谓语动词,be后面是主语,be必须和主语的数保持一致。如:

There is a garden behind the house.

There are two books on the desk.

如果主语部分是两个以上的并列主语时,be一般和邻近的主语的数保持一致。如:

There is a cup and two books on the desk.

There are five students and a teacher in the classroom.

3、复合句

复合句中包括两个或更多的分句,其中一个分句是主句,其余的分句是从句。从句就是一个分钟在主句中充当一个成分,如主语、表语、宾语、定语、状语等。从句在句子中作什么成分就叫什么从句。

1、主语从句

用作主语的从句叫作主语从句,主语从句一般都是作谓语动词的主语,偶尔也可以作分词的主语。

(1) what, that引导的主语从句

What she likes is watching the children play.

It is right that you told him the truth.

(2) 由连接副词whether, when, how, where, why引导主语从句。

Why the fire broke out at night remains a mystery.

Whether we can help you is a difficult question.

When the meeting will be held has not been decided.

 

2、表语从句

通常由that, what, where, why, how等连接词引导。

(1) if, whether, that引导表语从句。

The question is that we must be good at learning from others.

(2) what, which, who等连接代词

That is what I want to tell you.

The question is which of the classes we choose to be the excellent one.

(3) how, when, where, why等连接副词。

The question is how we can help him.

That is why he has been late.


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