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初中英语主要时态系列(三)—— 一般过去时讲解及练习

丹秋名师堂李小钏 2019年11月27日 初中英语 12228 阅读 0

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  一、一般过去时的基本结构  

 

1. 肯定句形式:主语+动词过去式+其他  

 

I was an English teacher one year ago.    一年前我是一名英语老师。

I bought a yellow dress yesterday afternoon.   昨天下午我买了一条黄裙子。

 

2. 否定句形式:①was/were+not;   ②在行为动词前加didn't,同时还原行为动词  

 

I wasn't an English teacher one year ago.    一年前我不是一名英语老师。

I didn't buy a yellow dress yesterday afternoon.    昨天下午我没买一条黄裙子。

 

3. 一般疑问句:①was/were提到句首;②Did+主语+动词原形+其他?  

 

Were you an English teacher one year ago?   一年前你是一名英语老师吗?

Did you buy a yellow dress yesterday afternoon?    昨天下午你买了一条黄裙子吗?

 

4. 特殊疑问句:特殊疑问词+一般疑问句

 

What were you one year ago?    一年前你是做什么的?

When did you buy a yellow dress?     你什么时候买了一条黄裙子?


  二、一般过去时的基本用法  

 

1. 表示在过去某个时间所发生的动作或所处的状态(与现在无关)。常与yesterday, last week, in 1989, just now, a moment ago, the other day等过去具体时间状语连用。

 

He was here just now.    他刚才还在这里。

What did you do yesterday?    你昨天做了什么事?

 

2. 在过去一段时间内的经常性或习惯性动作。

 

We often played together when we were children.   我们小时候常在一起玩。

(注:表示过去经常发生的动作还可用used to 和would。)

He used to smoke a lot, but he doesn’t now.   他过去经常抽烟,但现在不抽了。

Whenever we were in trouble, he would help us.    每当我们遇到困难,他都会帮助我们。

 

3. 表示主语过去的特征或性格。

 

At that time she was very good at English.    那时她英语学得很好。

 

4. 一般过去时有时可以表示现在,多与 want, hope, wonder, think, intend 等动词连用,使语气更委婉。

 

I wondered if you could help me.    不知你能不能帮我一下。

 

5. 有时用一般过去时也是时态一致的需要。

 

I didn’t know you were here.    没想到你在这里。

 

6.【注意】

 

(1)表示一系列的动作,尽管有先后,都用一般过去时,最后两个动词之间用and连结。

 

He opened the door, rushed out and then disappeared.   他打开门,冲了出去,然后就消失了。

 

(2)注意在语境中理解“我刚才/原来还不……”。

 

——Your phone number again? I didn’t quite catch it.  请再说一次你的电话号码,好吗?我刚才没听清楚。

 

7.【常见考法】

 

对于一般过去时的考查,多以单选、句型转换或词语运用的形式考查学生在具体语境中灵活运用时态的能力。在考试中,会让大家判断是否该用一般过去时,或动词过去式的正确变化,或一般过去时的句型构成。

 

典型例题:  Xiao Lin went fishing this morning.(改为一般疑问句)

答案:  Did Xiao Lin go fishing this morning?

 

解析:这是一道句型转换题,考查到同学们对一般过去时的句型构成的掌握。一般过去时的一般疑问句句型构成为:Did+主语+do+其他?,即句首加 Did,句中过去式还原。

 

8.【误区提醒】

 

有些句子,虽然没有表示过去明确时间的状语,但实际上是指过去发生的动作或存在的状态的话,也要用过去时,这一点,我们中国学生往往出错,要特别注意! 

 

典型例题:I didn''t know you      (be)in Paris.  

答案:were

 

解析:题干意思是“我不知道你在巴黎”。因为在说话时,我已经知道你在巴黎了。这句话指的是说话之前,所以只能用过去时表示。实际上,这句话暗指:But now I know you are here.


三、动词过去式的变化规则

 

1. 规则变化

①一般情况下,直接加ed

work—— worked 

look——looked 

walk——walked 


②以e结尾的单词,直接加d

live ——lived 

hope——hoped 

use——used  

 

③以辅音字母+y结尾的,变y为i加ed

study——studied 

carry——carried   

 

④以元音字母+y结尾的,直接加ed

enjoy ——enjoyed  

play——played

 

⑤以重读、一个辅音字母结尾的闭音节结尾的动词,双写最后的辅音字母+ed

stop—— stopped

plan——planned

prefer——preferred

 

2. 不规则变化

一、AAA型(原形→原形→原形)

原形

过去式

过去分词

汉语意思

read

read

read

cut

cut

cut

切,割

let

let

let

put

put

put

cost

cost

cost

花费,值

hit

hit

hit

撞,击

set

set

set

安排,安置

hurt

hurt

hurt

使…伤痛

bet

bet

bet

赌博,打赌

cast

cast

cast

 

二、ABA型(原形→过去式→原形)

原形

过去式

过去分词

汉语意思

become

became

become

成为

come

came

come

run

ran

run

throw

threw

thrown


三、ABC型

1. ow →ew →own

原形

过去式

过去分词

汉语意思

blow

blew

blown

draw

drew

drawn

grow

grew

grown

生长

know

knew

known

知道


2. i→a →u

原形

过去式

过去分词

汉语意思

begin

began

begun

开始

drink

drank

drunk

sing

sang

sung

swim

swam

swum

游泳

ring

rang

rung

打电话


3. 原形→过去式→过去式+(e)n

原形

过去式

过去分词

汉语意思

wear

wore

worn

穿

forget

forgot

forgotten

忘记

speak

spoke

spoken

freeze

froze

frozen

choose

chose

chosen

选择

drive

drove

driven

驾驶

mistake

mistook

mistaken

误解

rise

rose

risen

上升

shake

shook

shaken


4. 原形→过去式→原形+(e)n

原形

过去式

过去分词

汉语意思

eat

ate

eaten

forbid

forbade

forbidden

禁止

give

gave

given

ride

rode

ridden

see

saw

seen

看见

write

wrote

written

fall

fell

fallen

落下

break

broke

broken

打破,折断

forgive

forgave

forgiven

原谅;宽恕


5. 无规律

原形

过去式

过去分词

汉语意思

am/is

was

been

are

were

been

do

did

done

go

went

gone

take

took

taken


四、ABB型

1. 原形→ought →ought

原形

过去式

过去分词

汉语意思

bring

brought

brought

带来

buy

bought

bought

fight

fought

fought

打架

think

thought

thought

思考

seek

sought

sought

寻求


2. 原形→aught →aught

原形

过去式

过去分词

汉语意思

catch

caught

caught

捉,抓

teach

taught

taught


3. 变其中一个元音字母

原形

过去式

过去分词

汉语意思

feed

fed

fed

meet

met

met

遇见

get

got

got

得到

hold

held

held

拥有

babysit

babysat

babysat

临时照看

sit

sat

sat

win

won

won

find

found

found

发现

bend

bent

bent

使弯曲

dig

dug

dug

lead

led

led

引导

sell

sold

sold


4. 原形→□t→□t

原形

过去式

过去分词

汉语意思

feel

felt

felt

感到

keep

kept

kept

保持

leave

left

left

离开

sleep

slept

slept

sweep

swept

swept

smell

smelt

smelt

闻;发出气味

retell

retold

retold

复述


5. 变其中一个辅音字母

原形

过去式

过去分词

汉语意思

build

built

built

建造

hear

heard

heard

听见

make

made

made

制造

mean

meant

meant

意思

send

sent

sent

送,寄

spend

spent

spent

花费

deal

dealt

dealt

处理

rebuild

rebuilt

rebuilt

重建

lend

lent

lent

借贷


6.辅音字母和元音字母都变

原形

过去式

过去分词

汉语意思

have

had

had

有,吃

lay

lain

lain

lose

lost

lost

丢失

pay

paid

paid

付钱

say

said

said

sell

sold

sold

tell

told

told

告诉

stand

stood

stood

misunderstand

misunderstood

misunderstood

误解

shoot

shot

shot

放炮;开枪

understand

understood

understood

理解


五、AAB型

原形

过去式

过去分词

汉语意思

beat

beat

beaten

打败


六、有两种形式

原形

过去式

过去分词

汉语意思

bear

bore

born

bore

borne



hang

hanged

hanged

吊死

hung

hung


learn

learned

learned

learnt

learnt



lie

lied

lied

说谎

lay

lain


show

showed

showed

给……看

showed

shown



spell

spelled

spelled

拼写

spelt

spelt



burn

burned

burned

burnt

burnt



smell

smelled

smelled

smelt

smelt



shine

shined

shined

照耀

shone

shone



dream

dreamed

dreamed

做梦

dreamt

dreamt



wake

waked

waked

woke

woken



hide

hid

hid

躲藏

hid

hidden



bite

bit

bit

bit

bitten



light

lighted

iighted

点着

lit

lit



prove

proved

proved

证明

proved

proven



quit

quit

quit

放弃

quited

quited



rid

rid

rid

免除;去掉

ridded

ridded



saw

sawed

sawed

sawed

sawn



sew

sewed

sewed

缝纫

sewed

sown



shine

shone

shone

发光;闪亮

shined

shined



sink

sank

sunk

下沉

sank

sunken



sow

sowed

sowed

种植

sowed

sown



spit

spat

spat

spit

spit



spring

sprang

sprung

跳跃

sprung

sprung



wet

wet

wet

浸湿;弄湿

wetted

wetted




七、情态动词

原形

过去式

过去分词

汉语意思

can

could

may

might

也许

must

必须

shall

should

将要

will

would


  四、练习  

(添加李老师微信:dqmstce 回复“042”获取练习题电子档及答案)

【典型考例1】(2019四川广元)---What did you do the day before yesterday?---I __________ for an English test.

A. study       B. studied         C. studying



【典型考例2】(2019江苏南京)----Wendy, how long have you had the Huawei P30 Pro? ----A couple of days. I______it last week.  A. bought           B. buy           C. will buy           D. have bought



【典型考例3】(2019湖北鄂州)---Mary, I remember you ______several years ago.---Yes, I______ for 3 years.

A. married, have married        B. married, married        C. married, have been married      D. have married, have been married


【典型考例4】(2019湖北武汉). He_____ his English teacher when he was sightseeing in Paris.

A.has met             B. had met            C. met            D. would meet


【强化练习】


一、根据汉语,写出符合句子意思的单词,使句子完整。


1.(2019江苏连云港) Leo wanted to catch the cat, but it ran away and_______(藏)behind the bushes in the garden.


2.(2019浙江宁波) At the meeting the boss ________ (赞扬) John for the progress he made.


3.(2019江苏苏州)Miss Zhang ________(订购)a dress online two weeks ago, but it hasn't arrived yet.


4.(2019江苏泰州)President Xi Jinping _______ (颁发) the Top Science Award to Liu Yongtan and Qian Qihu for their great contributions to science and technology in January, 2019.


5.(2019湖北荆门) The thieves     (偷)many things from the supermarket and were put into prison.


6.(2019江苏镇江)Don’t give Eddie anything to eat. I ______(喂,喂养) him just now.


二、用所给单词的正确形式,完成句子。


1.(2019江苏连云港)Louis Cha Leung--yung , one of the greatest writers, ____ (pass away) last year. He built a fantastic wuxia world and created different types of heroes. 


2.(2019湖北武汉)Although the storm broke many things apart,it______(bright)families and neighbors closer together.


3.(2019湖北鄂州)A hen on my farm         (lay) a green egg yesterday.


4.(2019广西北部湾经济开发区)In the playground, I threw the ball to her and she____(catch) it.


5.(2019黑龙江绥化)Jill cooked and _____ (lay) out the dishes on the table. 


6.(2019黑龙江龙东地区)The teacher with his students _____ (be) proud of their performance after the School Music Festival.


7.(2019江苏无锡)---Can you pour me some tea, please, Jenny?   ---Are you sure? I _______(think) you preferred coffee.


8.(2019江苏无锡)"I _______(fail) over and over again in my life and there is why I succeed, " said Michael Jordan, a famous basketball player.


9.(2019江苏南通)We       (discover) this beach while we were sailing around the island. 


三、单项选择


1.(2019四川达州)---Alex, why didn’t you answer my call at nine last night ? ---Sorry, I _____ my mobile phone at home. I ______ basketball in the park with my friends. 

A.forgot; played        B.forgot; was playing          C.left; played        D.left; was playing 


2.(2019甘肃庆阳)---I cant find my English textbook---Is it possible that you________ it at home? 

A. lost             B. saw           C. left              D. gave


3.(2019江苏扬州)---My feelings for you have not changed.  ---But you have changed. You are not as you _____.    

A. are             B. were          C. will be        D. have been 


4.(2019四川德阳)---Could you tell me__________your holiday, Jim?   ---Yes. In Singapore.

A.where did you spend         B.how you spent          C.where you spent        D.how will you spend


5.(2019河北)He_________ me his name, but I can’t remember it now.

A. tells         B. will tell           C. told         D. is telling


6.(2019湖南邵阳)---Jack, you look more handsome in your new shirt today.    ---Oh, really ? I _____ it in a cheap store with my mom. 

A.buy          B.will buy             C.bought 


7.(2019大庆)---My car ____ yesterday. Could you please give me a ride tomorrow?   ---I’m sorry I can’t. I’m ____ Dalian tomorrow morning. 

A.breaks down; flying at         B.has broken down; flying at          B.broke down; flying to          D.had broken down; flying to


8.(2019广西桂林)He hasn’t communicated much with his parents since he _____ a mobile phone last year. 

A.got              B.get                 C.gets 


9.(2019昆明)---Where did you go last winter vacation?---I______to London with my family.

A.go              B.have gone              C.went         D.was going


10.(2019青海)---______ a big clock on the wall ? ---Yes, but it was broken in the earthquake.  

A.Have you got            B.Did you have           C. Was there 


11.(2019河北)He_________ me his name, but I can’t remember it now.

A. tells             B. will tell              C. told           D. is telling


12.(2019甘肃天水)The teacher asked Li Hua             .

A. why is he late for class           B. why he is late for class          C. why was he late for class         D. why he was late for class


13.(2019贵州铜仁)“Could you tell me ___ last night?” “About ten.”

A. when was the party over          B. when the party was over         C. when is the party over         D. when the party is over


四、完成句子


1.(2019天津)上周,我的朋友大卫带着一本新书到我家来访。Last week. my friend David           with a new book.


2.(2019甘肃敦煌)自我开始学英语以来,我结识了很多外国朋友。I have made many foreign friends_________ I ________learning English.


3.(2019四川眉山)当爸爸承诺给我买一个ipad的时候,我多么激动啊!When my father          to buy me an ipad,          excited I was!


4.(2019江苏连云港)Yesterday afternoon my brother __________(花了两个小时安装)a new light in our bedroom.


5.(2019江苏连云港) Suddenly, Lucy saw a policeman near the bus station. "I may ask him for help" She___________(自言自语)


6.(2019江苏淮安)今天早晨我们吃光了所有的蔬菜,最好去超市买一些。We _____ all the vegetables this morning, so we _______ buy some in the supermarket.


7.(2019湖北黄冈)2019年亚洲文明对话大会上个月在北京举行。(take)Asian Dialogue Conference 2019                in Beijing last month.


8.(2018江苏无锡)赫本在《罗马假日》中扮演一位公主,堪称经典。Hepburn __________a princess in Roman Holiday and it is a classic.


9.(2019江苏无锡)写作占去了我四分之三的假期,但我乐在其中。Writing _______________my holiday, but I enjoyed myself.


10.(2019辽宁抚顺)弗兰克想出了这个好主意。Frank _________________________ this good idea.


11.(2019内蒙古赤峰)上周, Jack从图书馆借了 5本书。Jack                the library last week.


12.(2019江苏扬州)在那个时候,他别无选择,只能依靠自己。   ___________________________________________________


13.(2019山东潍坊)上学期,玲玲的诗获得了一等奖。(win)   ___________________________________________________


14.(2019四川达州)2019四川达州)Steve with me read Yu Gong Moves a mountain in the library last month.Steve with me _______  _______  Yu Gong Moves a mountain in the library last month.


15.(2019黑龙江绥化)2019黑龙江绥化)He cut the watermelon into four pieces. ______ he______ the watermelon into four pieces?


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