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初中英语主要时态系列(五)——现在完成时讲解及练习

丹秋名师堂李小钏 2019年11月29日 初中英语 12800 阅读 0

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  一、现在完成时的基本结构  


肯定句:主语+have/has+动词的过去分词+其他

否定句:主语+have/has+not+动词的过去分词+其他

一般疑问句:Have/Has+主语+动词的过去分词+其他

特殊疑问句:特殊疑问词+一般疑问句(have/has+主语+过去分词+其他)


  二、现在完成时的用法  


1. 现在完成时用来表示过去已经完成的动作对现在造成影响或后果。也就是说,动作或状态发生在过去但它的影响现在还存在,强调的是现在。
I  have already posted the photo.  我已经邮寄出了照片。


与此种用法连用的时间状语时一些模糊的过去时间状语,如already(肯定句句中), yet(否定句/疑问句句尾), just, before, recently,still, lately,never等。


2. 现在完成时也可用来表示动作或状态发生在过去某一时刻,持续到现在并且有可能会继续持续下去。


He has lived here since 1978.  自从1978年以来,他一直住在这儿。(动作起始于1978年,一直住到现在,可能还要继续住下去。)


此种用法常与for(+时间段),since(+时间点或过去时的句子)连用。谓语动词必须是延续性动词。


有些瞬间动词可变为延续动词:

go out----be out   finish----be over   open----be open   die----be dead   

buy---have            fall ill---be ill      come back----be back   catch a cold----have a cold


  三、现在完成时常见考法  


对于现在完成时的考查,多以单选、句型转换或词语运用的形式考查学生在具体语境中灵活运用时态的能力。在考试中,会让大家判断是否该用现在完成时,或者是考查“瞬间动词”不能与表示一段时间的状语连用”这一知识点。


【典型例题】


His father_____the party since 1978

A.joind     B.has joined    C.was in    D.has been in


答案:D

解析:本题考查学生对现在完成时的熟练掌握。since 1978表达“自从1978年一直到现在”,表示这件事情从过去一直持续到现在,应该用现在完成时,而且动词必须是延续性动词,A、B均为瞬间动词,不能与时间段连用,故排除;C为一般过去时,也不行。


  四、比较一般过去时和现在完成时的异同  


  1. 共同点:动作都是在过去完成。


I saw the film yesterday evening.I have seen the film before.(看电影这件事都是在过去完成的。)


    2. 区别:


①现在完成时强调过去发生的动作对现在的影响和结果,而一般过去时与现在没有联系,只是说明某个动作发生的时间是在过去。


②一般过去时通常与具体明确的过去时间状语连用。如yesterday, last week , two years ago,just now,in 2002 等;而现在完成时则常与 just ,already ,ever ,never 等模糊的过去时间状语和 these days ,this week ,since..., for... 等表示一段时间的状语连用。


【典型例题】 

—______ you       your homework yet ?—Yes . I _____  it  a  moment ago .
A.Did ; do ; finished          B.Have ; done ; finished          C.Have ; done ; have finished


答案:B

解析:本题考查一般过去时和现在完成时的用法区别。问句中的yet表明应该用现在完成时,而回答中的a moment ago 是一个明确的过去时间状语,应该用一般过去时。


  五、过去分词的规则变化  


动词过去分词的规则变化与动词过去式的规则变化相同。


① 一般情况下,在词尾直接加“ ed ”。


work---worked---worked             visit---visited---visited


② 以“ e ”结尾的动词,只在词尾加“ d ”。 


live---lived---lived 


③ 以“辅音字母 + y ”结尾的动词,将 "y" 变为 "i" ,再加“ ed ”。


study---studied---studied         cry---cried---cried


④ 重读闭音节结尾,末尾只有一个辅音字母,先双写该辅音字母,再加“ ed ”。


stop---stopped---stopped           drop---dropped--dropped


  六、过去分词的不规则变化  

初中英语主要时态系列(五)——现在完成时讲解及练习 初中英语 第1张

初中英语主要时态系列(五)——现在完成时讲解及练习 初中英语 第2张

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  七、练习  

(添加李老师微信:dqmstce 回复“044”获取练习题电子档及答案)


【典型考例1】(2019江苏南通)----Is everyone here, Jonathan?

  ----No. Sir. Millie is absent. She            for two days.

A.has fallen ill        B. has been ill        C. fell ill            D. was ill


【典型考例2】(2019广西玉林)---Jenny, your new tape player looks great. 

----Oh, it’s not new. I _____ it for three years. 

A.buy            B.have had        C.bought       D.have bought 


【强化练习】


一、根据汉语意义或首字母提示,写出正确单词。


1.(2019四川广安) I haven’t ________ (收到…来信) from Sally before.

2.(2019浙江杭州).I’m very hungry . I haven’t e_______ anything since 7:00 this morning 

3.(2019广西北部湾经济开发区) Bob and Jim have been good friends_______(自从)they joined the same tennis team.


二、用所给单词的正确形式填空
1.(2019山东青岛)The writer is so popular that he _______(sell) more than 200,000 books so far. 

2.(2019江苏连云港)---I____ (have a fever)since last night. ---You’d better go to see a doctor. 

3.(2019江苏泰州)So far, the couple ___________ (not change) their flat since they had a second child.

4.(2019甘肃兰州)Jim has never ________(be) to Mount Tai in China.

5.(2019贵州安顺) Sandy borrowed the novel from the library last week and ________(keep) it for 5 days.

6.(2019湖北鄂州)Cathy and Linda              ( not be) back to their hometown for two years.

7.(2019江苏南通)----Can you go walking in the park with me, Daisy?----Sure. I           (finish)my DIY project.


三、单项选择


1.(2019山东临沂) Melting ice (融冰) can cause sea levels to rise. Since 1993, sea levels _________at a speed of 3.2 cm every 10 years.

A. rose            B. have risen          C. rise

2.(2019安徽)—It's ten years since we came here

—How time flies! We ____ in China for so long.

A. work           B. worked           C. will work        D. have worked

3.(2019江苏泰州)---Have you ever been to Shanghai?

---Of course. Actually, I _________there for six years but now I live in Taizhou.

A. worked           B. was working         C. would work       D. have worked

4.(2019湖北武汉). I ate some fruit, which I ______ since I was a child, and the vegetables from my garden.

A. have enjoyed        B. enjoyed           C. enjoy           D.had enjoyed

5.(2019湖南郴州)---- Where is Mr. Green?

---- He      the bookshop. You have to wait for him.

A. was going to        B. has gone to      C. has been to

6.(2019广东) My father ____ in a panda protection center for 10 years, so he knows a lot about panda. 

A. was working       B. is working      C. has worked    D. will work

7.(2019湖北襄阳).---- Why won’t we play basketball with Class 4 this afternoon?

---Because they         Longzhong for a study trip. 

A. have gone to       B. have been to       C. had gone to     D. had been to

8.(2019湖北随州)—Your new bike is so nice! When did you buy it? 

—In July. I _____it for two weeks.

A.had           B. have had           C. have bought      D. bought

9.(2019江苏淮安) ---Where are the teachers now?        

--- In the meeting room. They _________ the meeting for 10 minutes.

A. have begun     B. have been on    C. have had    D. have been held

10.(2019湖北黄冈)---Where is Catherine? I haven't seen her for days.

---She       Wuhan.  She’ll be back next week.

A. has gone to         B.  has been to        C. have gone to      D.  have been to 

11.(2019湖南长沙)I ______ abroad for several years, but I have never regretted my final decision to move back to my motherland.

A.am living        B.lived       C.have lived 

12.(2019四川眉山)---Linda has        to Paris. How can I get in touch with her?

---Don’t worry. She will call you as soon as she        there.

A. been;will get      B. been;gets      C. gone;will get      D. gone;gets

13.(2019四川眉山)---Your new watch is so nice! When did you buy it?

--- In October. I        it for two months.

A. had     B. bought     C. have had     D. have bought

14.(2019福建)---Look! My mother _____ a new dress for me. 

----Wow, it looks very nice on you. 

A.is making            B.has made      C.will make 

15.(2019呼和浩特)The shop in Wanda Square _____ for six years, but I _____ there so far. 

A.has opened; haven’t gone               B.has been open; haven’t been 

C.has been open; haven’t gone             D.has been opened; haven’t been 

16.(2019湖南湘潭)---Have you ever _____ the Terracotta Army in Xi’an ? 

----Yes. I went there last year. 

A.gone to             B.been to         C.been in 

17.(2019北京)Our school life           a lot since 2017. We have more activities now.

A. changes                B. changed        C. will change         D. has changed  

18.(2019湖北宜昌)----What progress Huawei _____ in recent years! 

----No wonder it is widely known in all parts of the world. 

A.is making              B.has made         C. makes         D. made 

19.(2019贵州毕节)---How many letters          you           to your mother?

--- 109 in all, since 2016.

A. has, written     B. have, written     C. did, write       D. are, writing

20.(2019湖南湘西)---_____ you ever ______ Hong Kong --Zhuhai ____Macao Bridge ? 

---Not yet. 

A.Did; visit           B.Are; visit            C.Have , visited 

21.(2019哈尔滨)---Hi, Tom! _____ you ever ____ the Bird’s Nest ? 

----Yes, I have. It’s fantastic. 

A.Have, been to          B.Have, gone to      C. Did, go to

22.(2019黑龙江齐齐哈尔)As an exchange student, Alan_____ Qiqihar for one and a half years. 

A.has been to             B.has been in         C.has gone to 

23(2019四川广元)---How long have you__________ your cap? It looks cool.

---About two weeks.

A. borrowed              B. bought                C. had

24.(2019贵阳)Today, all the erhu masters play and praise Erquan Yingyue. It ____ one of China’s national treasure. 

A.becomes               B.became                C.has become 

25(2019贵州黔西南)----How many letters _____ you _____ to your mother? 

----109in all, since 2016   

A.has, written        B.have; written       C.did; write       D.are ; writing 


四、完成句子


1.(2019四川达州)China has been able to make big planes like C919 with scientists’ great effects.

______ China ______ able to make big planes like C919 with scientists’ great effects?

2.(2019辽宁盘锦)布朗(Brown) 一家人已经在上海生活10年了

                                                                                                     

3.(辽宁铁岭)复仇者联盟4》已经上映两个月了。

Avengers:Endgame                      for two months.

4.(2019辽宁辽阳)他们已经采取行动挽救野生动物了吗?

Have they                                to save wild animals yet? 


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