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初中英语主要时态系列(七)—— 过去完成时讲解及练习

丹秋名师堂李小钏 2019年12月02日 初中英语 11594 阅读 0

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  一. 过去完成时的概念与结构  


概念:表示在过去某一时间或动作之前已经发生或完成了的动作,即“过去的过去( past-in-the-past )”。
构成:“助动词 had +   过去分词”,其中 had 通用于各种人称。 


They had already had breakfast before they arrived at the hotel.  在到达旅馆之前,他们已经吃过了早饭。
She had finished writing the composition by 10:00 this morning.  今天早晨10点之前,她已经写完了作文


  二. 过去完成时的用法  


用法1. 表示一个动作或状态在过去某一时间或动作之前已经完成或结束,即发生在“过去的过去”。例如: 


When I woke up, it had stopped raining.  我醒来时,雨已经停了。(雨停发生在醒来之前,即“过去的过去”) 


用法2. 表示某一动作或状态在过去某时之前已经开始,一直延续到这一过去时间,而且动作尚未结束,仍然有继续下去的可能。例如:


By the end of last year, he had worked in the factory for twenty years.   到去年年底为止,他已经在这个工厂工作了20年。( 到去年年底为止已工作了 20 年,还有继续进行下去的可能)


  三. 过去完成时的判断依据  


1. 由时间状语来判定 


一般说来,各种时态都有特定的时间状语。与过去完成时连用的时间状语有: 


1)by + 过去的时间点例如:


I had finished reading the novel by nine o'clock last night.    到昨天晚上九点钟为止,我已经读完了这本小说。


2)by the end of + 过去的时间点例如:


We had learned over two thousand English words by the end of last term.  到上学期末为止,我们已经学了两千多单词。


3)before + 过去的时间点,例如:


They had planted six hundred trees before last Wednesday.  在上周三之前,他们已经植了六百棵树。


2. 由“过去的过去”来判定


过去完成时表示“过去的过去”,是指在过去某一动作之前已经发生或完成的动作,即动作有先后关系,动作在前的用过去完成时,在后的用一般过去时。这种用法常出现在: 


1)宾语从句中:当宾语从句的主句为一般过去时,且从句的动作先于主句的动作时,从句要用过去完成时。例如: 


She said that she had seen the film before.    她说她之前看过这部电影。


2)状语从句中 :在时间、条件、原因、方式等状语从句中,主、从句的动作发生有先后关系,动作在前的,要用过去完成时,动作在后的要用一般过去时。例如:


 When I got to the station, the train had already left.   当我到达车站的时候,火车已经离开了。


注意:before, after 引导的时间状语从句中,由于 before 和 after 本身已表达了动作的先后关系,若主、从句表示的动作紧密相连,则主、从句都用一般过去时。例如: 


Where did you study before you came here?  在你来这里之前,你在哪里学习?
After he closed the door, he left the classroom.  他关上门后,离开了教室。


3)表示意向的动词,如hope, wish, expect, think, intend, mean, suppose等,用过去完成时表示"原本…,未能…",例如:


We had thought that you would come, but you didn't.  我原认为你会来的,但是你没有。


3. 根据上、下文来判定


I met Wang Tao in the street yesterday. We hadn't seen each other since he went to Beijing.  昨天我在街上遇到了王涛。自从他去了北京我们一直还没有见过彼此。


  四. 过去完成时与一般过去时的区别  


虽然这两种时态都表示过去发生的动作或存在的状态,但在使用时应注意以下两点: 


1. 时间状语不同,过去完成时在时间上强调“过去的过去”;而一般过去时只强调过去某一特定的时间。试比较: 


They had arrived at the station by ten yesterday.  到昨天十点为止,他们已经到达了车站。
They arrived at the station at ten yesterday.  他们在昨天十点的时候到达车站。


2. 在没有明确的过去时间状语作标志时,谓语动词动作发生的时间先后须依据上下文来判断,先发生的用过去完成时,后发生的则用一般过去时。例如: 


She was very happy. Her whole family were pleased with her, too. She had just won the first in the composition competition.   她很高兴。她的全家对她也很满意。她刚刚在作文比赛中得了第一。


  五、练习  

(添加李老师微信:dqmstce 回复“046”获取练习题电子档及答案)


【典型考例】John and I____ friends for eight years. We first got to know each other at a Christmas  party. But we_____ each other a couple of times before that. 

A. had been; have met      B. have been; have met     C. had been; had met       D. have been; had met


一、

1. We _____________ (paint) the house before we ______________ (move) in.

2. That rich old man _____________ (make) a will before he _____________ (die).

3. They _____________ (study) the map of the country before they ________ (leave).

4. The robbers _____________ (run )away before the policemen _______  (arrive).

5. I __________ (turn) off all the lights before I ____________ (go) to bed.

6. Paul __________ (go) out with Jane after he __________ (make)  a phone call.

7. Tom __________ (say) he ___________ (read) the book twice.

8. Our plan ____________ (fail ) because we _____________ (make) a bad mistake.

9. She told me she _________________(be) to Chongqing three times.

10.He said he _____________already_________(give) the book to the teacher.

11.When I ______________(get) at the station, the train ____________________(leave).

12.We _______________(learn) about 4000 English words by the end of last term.

13. I waited until he _______________(finish) his homework.

14. We were surprised at what she ________already ______(do)


二、

1. I lost the book I________.   

A.have bought    B.bought     C.had bought     D.had been bought  


2.The bus ______ when I arrived at the bus stop.   

A.has gone    B.went     C.had gone    D is going  


3.Tom ____ of visiting his grandmother,but the bad weather made him change his mind.   

A.has thought    B.thought     C.had thought    D.had been thought  


4.—Did you meet Tom at the airport?   

—No,he ___ by the time I ___ there.   

A.has left;got      B.had left;arrived     C.left;arrived      D.left;had got


5.—Why didn't Tom attend the meeting yesterday?  

—He ____ Beijing.   

A.has gone to      B.had gone to     C.went to      D.had been to  


6.In this experiment, they are woken up several times during the night, and asked to report what they____.

A. had just been dreaming      B. are just dreaming  

C. have just been dreaming     D. had just dreamt


7.Finally Mary was admitted by Beijing University,for which she___ five times.   

A.had tried      B.was trying      C.has tried     D.tried   


8.—I have bought you the books you want.

 —Oh,good,I was afraid you _______.   

A.forgot        B.forget       C.had forgotten      D.have forgotten


9. We ____five English songs by the end of last term.  

A had learned     B  learned     C have learned     D will have learned


三、

1.He has collected over 300 Chinese stamps. Mike told us.(合并为一句)

Mike told us that he _______  ______ over 300 Chinese stamps. 


2.What he did . We didn’t know (合并为一句)

We didn’t know what he _______  ______. 


3.The plane set off. By the time we got to the airport. (合并为一句)

By the time we _____ to the airport, the plane ______  ______ off. 


4.We didn’t know. He will come. (合并为一句)

We didn’t know he ______ ______. 


5.(2019江苏无锡)如果你能告诉我机器人已失控多久,那就太好了。

It would be great if you can tell me _______________________________


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