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高中英语知识点梳理-必修1

丹秋名师堂谢姣 2019年10月28日 高中英语 17894 阅读 1

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核心单词[1-50]

1. add

vt.& vi. 增加;加;加起来;补充说; 又说

常用结构:

add to增添;增加;增进

add ...to ...把……增添到……

add up合计,相加

add up to总数为;总计为

He added some wood to increase the fire.

他添了一些木柴,使火更旺些。

If you add 4 to 3 you get 7.四加三得七。

Unit 1  Friendship

Page No.11

Page No.12

①解析:选C。考查动词辨析。句意为:我要说的就是这些,

约翰你还有什么要补充的吗?

②解析:选Dadd to的意思是“添加到”。

2. upset

adj. 心烦意乱的;不安的;不适的

vt. ( upset, upset) 使不安;使心烦;打翻;打乱

联想拓展

be upset by...被…… 打乱

upset oneself about sth.为某事烦恼

Our arrangements for the weekend were upset by her visit.

她一来把我们周末的安排给打乱了。

Don’t upset yourself — no harm has been done.

不要难过——并没有造成任何伤害。

He was horribly upset over her illness.

他为她的病而忧心忡忡。

The students really upset her. 学生们着实让她烦恼。

高手过招

upset的适当形式填空(原创)

The food             my stomach.

She felt rather             on hearing the news.

Is it an             message?

Dont be              . It will be OK.

upset  upset upsetting upset

3. ignore

vt. 不理睬;忽视

I said hello to her, but she ignored me completely.

我向她打招呼,可是她根本不理我。

He ignored the speed limit and drove very fast.

他不顾时速限制,把车开得飞快。

联想拓展

ignorant adj. (对某事物)不了解的;无知的;无学识的

be ignorant of/about sth.不知道;没有意识到

ignorance n.无知;愚昧;不知道

be in ignorance of/about sth. 不知道某事

易混辨析

ignore/neglect/overlook

 ignore 通常指有意不顾,或不理会显而易见的事物。

neglect 侧重指有意的忽略或忽视,也可指粗心与疏忽。

overlook指因匆忙而疏忽或视而不见。

高手过招

1)用ignore/neglect/overlook的适当形式填空 (原创)

We could not afford to          such a serious offence.

He utterly             my warnings and met with an accident.

Dont                    to pay him a visit now and then.

(1)overlook ignored neglect

2)单项填空

So you didn’t say hello to him last night?

Well, I stopped and smiled when I saw him, but he        me and walked on. 2010·杭州一模)

A. Ignored    B. refused    C.  denied   D.  missed

Page No.15

(2)解析:选A。答句句意为:我看到他就停下来冲他微笑,但是

他没理我就走了。ignore不理睬,忽视;refuse拒绝;deny否认,

拒绝给予;miss怀念,错过。

4. concern

n. U]关心,担心,担忧;[C]有利害关系的事  

vt. 涉及,关系到,参与;使担心

联想拓展

concerning   prep.  关于

concerned   adj.有关的;担心的

concern sb.与某人有关

be concerned with sth.牵涉,与……有关;参与

concern oneself with 关心

be concerned about/for/over sth.担心;关心某事

as/so far as ... be concerned关于;至于;就……而言

As far as I am concerned, you can go wherever you want.

就我而言,你什么时候走都行。

We read stories concerning visitors from outer space.

我们读了关于天外来客的故事。

I was very concerned about my mother’s illness.

我很担心母亲的病情。

高手过招

1)单项填空

The meeting was concerned          reforms and everyone present was concerned           their own interests.

 2010·福建厦门双十中学检测)

A. with; for  B. for; which  C. for; about   D. about; with

2)用concern的适当形式填空(原创)

There is an article that           the rise of the prices.

The children are rather         about their mothers health.

Officials should           themselves           public affairs.

 (1)解析:选A。句意为:这次会议牵涉到改革,在场的每个人都很担心自己的利益。be concerned with  牵涉到,和……有关;be concerned for/about   担心;关心。

(2)concerns concerned concernwith

5. settle

vi. 安家;定居;停留

vt. 使定居;安排;解决

Both wanted to settle their scores.双方都愿意尽弃前嫌。

常用结构:

settle down 镇定下来

settle in 在……定居

He settled his child in a corner of the compartment.

他把孩子安顿在车厢的一个角落里。

The family has settled in Canada.

这家人已定居加拿大。

Page No.18

高手过招

单项填空

①—Do you know anyone in Paris?

No. Ill make friends once .2010·福建厦门六中检测)

A. I’m settled                        B. I have settled

C. I’ll be settled                    D. I’m settling

The brake of your bicycle has come loose. Youd better  it .2010·陕西西安交大附中)

A. settle                                  B. fix

C. pick                                    D. correct

①解析:选Asettle作“安家”讲时,既可用settle,也可用be settled。本题是由once(一旦)引起的时间状语从句,故用一般现在时表将来。

②解析:选B。由句意可知,因为自行车的车闸坏了,因此要“修理”。

Page No.19

6. suffer

vt. 遭受;忍受;蒙受

vi.后接from/for意为“受……之苦”,“患……疾病”

常用结构:

suffer an attack/a defeat/losses/pains

遭受打击/失败/损失/痛苦

He suffered hard pains from the accident.

他忍受着事故带来的痛苦。

Do you suffer from headaches? 你经常头痛吗?

Shes suffering from loss of memory. 她患有遗忘症。

联想拓展

sufferer n. 受苦者,受难者

suffering n.痛苦,苦难

Page No.20

高手过招

1)单项填空

In the countryside there are many dropouts (辍学者). I think the difficulty                  the poor economic conditions.2010·浙江嘉兴一轮检测)

A. lies in                                        B. result in

C. leads to                                    D. suffers from

2)翻译句子

我们在金融危机中损失惨重。

(1)解析:选A。考查短语辨析。lie in在这里相当于because of

(2)We suffered huge losses in the financial crisis.

Page No.21

重点短语

7. go through

经历;经受;检查;浏览;用完;做完

The country has gone through too many wars.

这个国家经历了太多的战争。

She’s gone through a bad patch recently.

她最近经历了一段困难时期。

Have you gone through all your money already?

你把所有的钱都花完了吗?

I went through the students’ papers last night.

昨晚我仔细阅读了学生的试卷。

联想拓展

go after追求;追赶  

go ahead 前进;请说(做)吧

go by走过;(时间)过去

go along with向前;(与......)一起去

go in for爱好;从事

Page No.22

go out 外出;(灯,火)熄灭

go over 越过;复习

go through with 做完;完成

go up 爬上;(价格等)上升

高手过招

单项填空

Wed better try to          with the experiment, I think. Now lets            with it.2010·河南许昌一模)

A. go through; go on                   B. go on;  go over

C. go over; go through                D. go on;  go through

If a person has taken too much medicine by mistake, you should make the person         .2010·平顶山一中月考)

A. go up                                         B. rise up

C. throw up                                    D. set up

Page No.23

①解析:选Ago through with sth.意思是“做完,完成”;go on with 意思是“继续”。

②解析:选Cthrow up的意思是“呕吐;吐出”。

8. get sth.done

让别人做某事/使得某事被做

done是过去分词作宾语补足语,与have sth. done句型的用法一样。

get sb./sth.  doing使某人/某事物……起来

get sb. to do sth.使/让某人做某事

get  done  (状态的改变)get作系动词,相当于be

get away逃脱;离开

get back回来;取回

get by维持生活;通过

get down to sth./doing sth.开始认真做某事

get in进站;到达;收集

get off下来;下车

get on上车;进展;进步

Page No.24

get cross(对……)生气,发脾气

get in ones way挡路,妨碍

get used to doing sth.习惯做某事

get involved in涉及

get in touch with和……取得联系

get it了解,懂得,明白

高手过招

1)单项填空

The final examination is coming up soon. Its time for us to          our studies.  2010·河南焦作一中月考)

A. get down to                             B. get out

C. get back for                             D. get over

2)完成句子(原创)

①讲解后,老师让我们思考起问题来。

Shortly after the explanation the teacher got us               .

Page No.25

②我们将很快为你订制一套新衣服。

We will get a new suit             for you.

③她试图使他说话。

She tried to get him                      .

(1)解析:选A。该题根据交际情景考查短语动词的用法。根据题意,此处指开始认真学习,故选Aget down to开始认真考虑,符合题意。get out出去,离开,逃脱,泄露;get back for回来,恢复;get over爬过;克服,熬过;恢复,原谅。故BCD三项均不符合题意。

(2)thinking made  to talk

9. set down

放下;记下;登记

Passengers may be set down and picked up only at the official stops.乘客只有在正式车站方可上下车。

Page No.26

联想拓展

set about (doing sth.) 着手(做某事)

set out (to do sth.)开始,着手(做某事)

set aside留出;不顾

set back(把钟等)往回拨;推迟

set free释放;解放

set off动身,出发(去某地);使爆炸

set out动身,出发;安排,组织

set up开办;建立;设立

set an example to树立榜样

set fire to ...= set ... on fire纵火烧

be set in以……为背景

The bad weather set back the building programme by several weeks.

由于天气恶劣,建筑计划延误了好几个星期。

We need to set about finding a solution.

我们得着手寻找一个解决办法。

Page No.27

温馨提示

set about set out都可作“开始/着手做某事”讲,但set about 后加doing sth., 而set out后加 to do sth.

高手过招

单项填空

As soon as he got to the office, he  the students’ papers.

2010·山东济南一中月考)

A. got down to correct

B. got down to correcting

C. set down to correcting

D. sit down to correcting

解析:选Bget down to意思是“着手做某事”,其中to是介词,

后跟名词或动名词。

Page No.28

10. on purpose

故意

The boy broke Jack’s window on purpose. He wanted to frighten Jack.

那男孩是故意打破杰克的窗玻璃的,他想吓一下杰克。

联想拓展

purpose n. 目的,用途;目标;重要意义

for the purpose of 为了……

to little/no purpose 作用不大/徒劳

The purpose of the book is to provide a complete guide to the university.

这本书的目的是全面介绍这所大学。

高手过招

purpose的适当形式或短语填空 (原创)

He didnt do it             .

What was your             ?

on purpose purpose

Page No.29

11. join in

参加;加入

They didn’t have enough time to join in the activity.

他们没有足够的时间来参加这个活动。

联想拓展

join sb. in sth.与某人一起做某事

join up入伍;参军

join up with sb.与某人联合;会合

join hands with sb.与某人拉起手来;合伙;联合

Will you join me in a walk? 你愿意和我一起散步吗?

Let us join hands in friendship.

让我们携手共建友谊吧。

Page No.30

易混辨析

join in/join/take part in/attend

join in 参加正在进行着的活动。如游戏、讨论、辩论、谈话等。

join ①参加某组织或团体,并成为其中一员;②来和某人待在一起。

take part in 参加会议或有组织的群众性活动,并在其中发挥一定的作用。

attend 正式用语,指参加会议、仪式、婚礼、葬礼、上课、上学、听报告等,句子的主语是去听去看,自己不一定起积极作用,相当于be present

高手过招

join/join in/take part in/attend的适当形式填空(原创)

I decided to            the club to have dance training.

Would you like me           to  the game?

I                  a meeting last month.

I will have to                his funeral next week.

join join in took part in/attended attend

Page No.31

重点句型

12. ...but your friend can’t go until he/she finishes cleaning his/her bicycle.

……但是你的朋友不把自行车弄干净不能走。

not ... until 意为“直到……才”,表示主句谓语的动作直到until状语的时间才发生,主句的谓语动词表示的是动作的开始。until引导从句时,如果主句中的谓语动词是延续性动作,则主句用肯定式;如果主句中的谓语动词是短暂性动词,则用否定形式。

It is/was not until+被强调的部分+that ...”相当于“Not until ... did (does, do, is ...)+主语 ...”意为“直到……才”,是强调形式。

You must stay in bed until your temperature is normal.

体温正常后,你才能起床。

He didn’t leave until the meeting was over.

直到会议结束他才离开。

Page No.32

It was not until she took off her dark glasses that I realized she was a film star.

=Not until she took off her dark glasses did I realize she was a film star.

=I didn’t realize she was a famous film star until she took off her dark glasses.

直到她摘下墨镜我才认出她是一位电影明星。

高手过招

单项填空

Not until      ,        settle the problem. 2010·潍坊一轮验收)

A. he returns; can we              B. he returns; we can  

C. does he returns; we can     D. does he return; we can

It was            back home after the experiment.

A. not until midnight did he go

B. until midnight that he didn’t go

C. not until midnight that he went

D. until midnight when he didn’t go

Page No.33

①解析:选A。当not until位于句首时句子需倒装。句意为:直到他回来我们才能解决这个问题。

②解析:选C。强调句型It is/was ...thatnot until ...进行强调时,需把not until ...放到强调结构中,故选C

13. While walking the dog, you were careless and it got loose and was hit by a car.

遛狗的时候,你太大意了,一松手,狗就被车撞了。

while walking the dog是连词while加现在分词短语结构,强调分词的动作正在发生,相当于while you were walking the dog

在时间、条件、让步、方式等状语从句中,如果从句的主语与主句的主语一致,谓语含有系动词be,可以省略从句的主语和系动词be

 When crossing the street, you should be careful.

过马路时,你应当小心。

If heated, water can be turned into vapour.

如果受热,水会变成蒸气。

Page No.34

温馨提示

在状语从句中,如果从句的主语为it时,也可以将it和助动词be省略。

Whenever possible they would stop him and ask the three questions.可能的话,他们就让他停下问他这三个问题。

高手过招

单项填空

①           with the size of the whole earth, the biggest ocean does not seem big at all. 2010·山东莱州检测)

A. Compares                    B. When comparing

C. Comparing                   D. When compared

②               the two systems, little man found the latter advantageous.(原创)

A. Compare                       B. When compared

C. Compared                     D. When comparing

Page No.35

①解析:选D。考查状语从句的省略用法。在状语从句中,如果从句的主语与主句的主语相同或者主语为it时,可以将从句中的主语或者it和助动词be省略。本句是将状语从句“When it is compared with the size of the whole earth”中的it is省略,因此正确答案为D

②解析:选D。考点省略。在状语从句中,当从句中的主语与主句的主语一致,且从句中含有be动词时,通常采用省略形式。句中的little mancompare之间存在逻辑上的主谓关系,故选D

14. I wonder if its because I havent been able to be outdoors for so long that Ive grown so crazy about everything to do with nature. 我不知道这是不是因为我长久无法出门的缘故,我变得对一切与大自然有关的事物都无比狂热。

此句中的its ...that是强调句型。关于强调句型,我们需要掌握以下几点:

Page No.36

1)强调句型的基本结构:

It is/was+被强调的成分+that/who+其他成分”用来强调主语、宾语和状语等成分。that只起连接作用,不作成分,但不能省略。当被强调部分为sb.作宾语时,可用who,也可用that,其他情况一律用that。强调主语时,that后的谓语动词必须与被强调的主语在人称与数上保持一致。

2)特殊句式中的强调句型:

①如果强调的是特殊疑问句中的疑问词,表示“到底”、“究竟”等语气时,就用如下结构:

“特殊疑问词+is/was+it+that/who+该句的其余部分”,that/who后只能使用陈述语序。

②在“not ...until”结构中,由until所引导的短语(或从句)作时间状语时,要用固定的强调句型:“It+is/was+not until ...+that+该句的其余部分”,that所引导的从句中的谓语动词用肯定式。

Page No.37

3)强调句型要注意和it代表时间、距离、温度、自然现象、具体事物或人物等时所构成的各种句型的区别。判断是否是强调句,可采用“还原法”。如果还原为一般句式后,句子各种成分完整,则是强调句,否则不是。

It was three o’clock when I got home.

我到家的时候三点。

It was at three o’clock that I got home.

三点钟我到的家。

It was in his town that he was brought up.

他是在镇上被养大的。(强调句)

It was this town where/in which he was brought up.

这是他被抚养长大的城镇。(定语从句)

4)英语中常用助动词do, doesdid强调谓语。

He did go to the airport yesterday, but he didn’t find you.

他昨天确实去了机场,但他没有找到你。

Page No.38

It is I that/who am going for a holiday with Mary.

是我跟玛丽一块儿去度假。

When is it that we will have a meeting?

我们什么时候开会?

高手过招

单项填空

It is in that poor village,            Mary lived and worked 15 years ago,              she will build her first school, which inspires everyone to help her.(原创)

A. where; when                    B. that; that

C. that; when                        D. where; that

解析:选D。句意为:就是在那个她生活和工作了15年的贫穷的村庄,玛丽将要建起她的第一座学校,这一点鼓舞了人们来帮她。第一空为where引导的非限制性定语从句,第二空填that,构成强调句型,强调地点状语。

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15. I don't want to set down a series of facts in a diary as most people do ...

我不愿像大多数人那样在日记中记流水账……

as引导的从句为比较状语从句,意为“像大多数人那么做”。

as 用作连词,可引导下列状语从句:

①引导时间状语从句,强调主句谓语与从句谓语的同时性;

②引导让步状语从句,表示“尽管,虽然,即使”(从句需倒装);

③引导方式状语从句,表示“以……方式”;

④引导原因状语从句 (=since; because),意为“由于,因为”;

⑤引导比较状语从句。

As he grew older he lost interest in everything except gardening.

随着他年纪越来越大,他失去了对所有事物的兴趣,除了园艺。

Cold as it is, my brother wears only a shirt.

尽管天气冷,我哥哥只穿了一件衬衫。

Page No.40

Why didn't you take the medicine as I told you to?

为什么你没有按我说的来服这种药?

As you were not there, I left a message.

因为当时你不在那,所以我给你留了便条。

She is as tall as you. 她和你一样高。

高手过招

单项填空

①            as he is, he speaks English well. 2010·山西太原一中月考)

A. Little child                         B. A little child

C. The little child                   D. Child little

In some countries,                  are called public schoolsare not owned by the public.2010·11·江西新余一中质量检测)

A. which      B. as        C. what          D. that

Page No.41

①解析:选B。 在让步状语从句中,作表语的名词如果提前,该名词常省去冠词,但若名词前有修饰语时,就不省略冠词。

②解析:选C。考查what引导的主语从句。what在主语从句中作主语。句意为:在许多国家,所谓的公立学校并非公众拥有。

16. ...it was the first time in a year and a half that I'd seen the night face to face ...

……这是我一年半以来第一次目睹夜晚……

如果前面是it (will be)is/this (will be)is/that (will be)is+the first/second time that ...”句式,表示“某人第几次做某事”。其中,that引导的是定语从句,后面句子的时态用现在完成时;如果前面是it (would be)was ..., 后面则用过去完成时。

It is the first time that I have come to Zhuhai.

这是我第一次来珠海。

It was the second time that she had visited London.

那是她第二次游览伦敦。

Page No.42

温馨提示

如果time前有last修饰,此时我们一般不用完成时态。

注意:the first time可起从属连词的作用,引导时间状语从句;for the first time意为“第一次”单独用作状语。

This is the last time that I shall give you a lesson.

这是我最后一次给你们上课了。

高手过招

(1)单项填空

It's the third time            late this week. (原创)

A. that you are              B. you are

C. when you arrived     D. that you have been

It was for the first time that he           to the party.

A. Invited                       B. had been invited

C. has been invited       D. was invited

(2)翻译句子(原创)

This will be the second time that I have been to the Great Wall.

Page No.43

1)①解析:选D。“It is the +序数词+time+ that从句”为固定句型,从句谓语动词必须用现在完成时。

②解析:选Dit was ...that是强调结构,句中强调状语“for the first time”故选D

2)这将会是我第二次去长城。

Page No.44

Unit 2  English around the world

核心单词

1. command

n. & vt. 命令;指令;掌握

The officer commanded his soldiers to fire.  

那名军官命令士兵们开火。

A general is a man who commands a large number of soldiers.

将军是统率众多士兵的人。

常用结构:

at/ by sbs command  听某人支配

take command of   控制

in command of    指挥着

Page No.45

under ones command  由某人的指挥

under the command of sb. 在某人的指挥下

command sb. to do sth. 命令某人做某事

command (=order) that ...      命令……(从句用虚拟语气,即should+ do  形式,should可省略)

联想拓展

commander n.  指挥官

高手过招

用适当的介词填空(原创)

For the first time in years, she felt she was           command

of her life.

The army is               the kings direct command.

The police arrived and took command             the situation.

in under/at/by of

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2. request

vt.&n. 请求;恳求;要求

常用结构:

request sb.  to do sth.请求某人做某事

request sth.  from/of sb. 向某人要求某物

request that sb.  (should) do sth.要求某人做某事

make a request/requests 发出请求

at the request of sb.at sb.s request依照某人的请求

易混辨析                

             request/demand/require

request表示“有礼貌的请求;正式的请求”。

demand表示“有正当权利的要求”,因此含有“坚决或强烈要求”的意思。

require表示“要求所必须的东西;法律、协定、规章以及其他客观情况的要求”。

但它们也有不同之处:

Page No.47

requirerequest都可以接宾语+to do sth.结构,而demand没有此种用法。但可以说demand of sb. to do sth.

require+动名词时,主动形式的动名词具有被动意义,而demandrequest无此种用法。

They are demanding higher wages.  他们要求提高工资。

Do you require anything else? 你还要求(需要)别的吗?

Many people have requested this next song.

许多人要求听下面这首歌。

They required me to keep silent.  他们要求我保持沉默。

The letter requested us to leave the house within six weeks.  

这封信要求我们六周内搬出这所房子。

温馨提示

以上三个词的共同点是:从语法上看,requestdemandrequire都可以接that引导的宾语从句,并且在从句中要使用虚拟语气。

Page No.48

高手过招

单项填空

One of the requirements for a fire is that the material           to its burning temperature.2010·陕西师大附中月考)

A. be heated                                     B.  is heated

C.  would be heated                         D.  do heat

②—Why were you late for such an important concert?

The plane arrived at the airport after a          of three hours.          2010·陕西商洛一轮检测)

A. delay        B. rest         C. tour       D. request

①解析:选A。如同require, demand, order, suggest, advise, insist, request等动词要求其后面的宾语从句使用虚拟语气一样,它们所对应的名词的同位语从句和表语从句也要求使用虚拟语气,即:should+动词原形。故选A

②解析:选A。上句询问“迟到的原因”,因此下句中的名词应是与“迟到”意义有关的名词,所以只能选择“延误”。

Page No.49

3. recognize

vt. 辨认出;承认;公认

常用结构:

recognize sb. 认出某人

recognize ones voice听出某人的声音

recognize ... as ... 认定;承认……为……

recognize sb./sth. ... to be ...认为某人/某事物是……

recognize that ...承认……

When he walked out of the station, I recognized him immediately.

当他从车站里走出来时,我立刻认出了他。

Everyone recognized him to be the lawful heir/as the lawful heir. 大家都承认他为合法继承人。

Page No.50

高手过招

单项填空

Oh, it’s you! I           you.

I have just had my hair cut, and I’m wearing new glasses.

2010·山东淄博六中检测)

A.  hadn’t recognized                 B.  haven’t recognized

C.  didn’t recognize                    D.  don’t recognize

解析:选C。前句的句意为:哦,是你呀!我刚才没有认出你来。

所以要用一般过去时。

4. direction

n. C] 方向;方面;U]指导;指挥

常用结构:

in the direction of 朝……的方向(=towards)

in sbs direction 朝某人的方向(=towards sb.)

under ones direction 在……指导下(=under the direction of sb.)


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